- Methylphenidate was first synthesized in 1944 by the CIBA Pharmaceutical company.
- In the 1960s and 1970s, Methylphenidate was first marketed for “hyperkinetic syndrome” (now known as ADHD), narcolepsy, and depression.
- Methylphenidate, like many other stimulants (e.g., cocaine) binds to, and inhibits, the dopamine transporter (DAT) on dopaminergic neurons and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) on norepinephrine neurons in the brain.
- Inhibition of DAT and NET increases extracellular levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, respectively, in target areas of the brain.
- Methylphenidate is primarily used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Narcolepsy, Depression, and Chronic Fatigue.
- Methylphenidate comes in a number of formulations with different durations of action.
- Brand names for methylphenidate-based medications include Focalin, Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Daytrana, and Methylin